What Are Rapalogs?
Rapalogs are drugs that work similarly to rapamycin, the most reliably life-extending drug. Rapamycin was discovered in 1972 in a bacterium called Streptomyces hygroscopicus on the island of Rapa Nui (aka Easter Island). It was initially developed as an antifungal, but later it was found that it inhibits the mTOR pathway, which regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, and cell survival. Recently, other drugs have been found which also inhibit mTOR.
Rapamycin is an immunosuppressant used to prevent organ transplant rejection; it has serious side effects in humans, including infections and low platelet counts, so it’s unlikely to be usable as an anti-aging preventative, though there are some studies suggesting that low-dose rapamycin may be safe.
A few rapalogs have been found to have anti-aging effects in animals, but none have been shown to increase mouse lifespan so far.
LEARN MORE: The Lifespan Research Institute
During early development, cells begin to take on specific functions. Gene regulation ensures that the appropriate genes are expressed at the proper times. Gene regulation can also help an organism respond to its environment. Gene regulation is accomplished by a variety of mechanisms including chemically modifying genes and using regulatory proteins to turn genes on or off.
Telomeres shorten …
A telomere is the end of a chromosome. Telomeres are made of repetitive sequences of non-coding DNA that protect the chromosome from damage. Each time a cell divides, the telomeres become shorter. Eventually, the telomeres become so short that the cell can no longer divide.