Older men (n = 12) and women (n = 18) 65–80 years of age completed twelve weeks of exercise and took either a placebo or resveratrol (500 mg/day) to test the hypothesis that resveratrol treatment combined with exercise would increase mitochondrial density, muscle fatigue resistance, and cardiovascular function more than exercise alone.
Contrary to our hypothesis, aerobic and resistance exercise coupled with resveratrol treatment did not reduce cardiovascular risk further than exercise alone. However, exercise added to resveratrol treatment improved the indices of mitochondrial density, and muscle fatigue resistance, more than placebo and exercise treatments.
In addition, subjects that were treated with resveratrol had an increase in knee extensor muscle peak torque (8%), average peak torque (14%), and power (14%) after training, whereas exercise did not increase these parameters in the placebo-treated older subjects. Furthermore, exercise combined with resveratrol significantly improved mean fiber area and total myonuclei by 45.3% and 20%, respectively, in muscle fibers from the vastus lateralis of older subjects.
Together, these data indicate a novel anabolic role of resveratrol in exercise-induced adaptations of older persons and this suggests that resveratrol combined with exercise might provide a better approach for reversing sarcopenia than exercise alone.
FULL TEXT: J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci
EDITOR’S NOTE: ‘sarcopenia’ is muscle-wasting.
Calorie restriction (CR) delays the development of age-associated disease and increases lifespan in rodents, but the effects in humans remain uncertain.
Purpose. Determine the effect of 6 months of CR with or without exercise on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and estimated 10-year CVD risk in healthy non-obese men and women.
Methods. Thirty-six individuals were randomized to one of three groups for 6 months: Control, 100% of energy requirements; CR, 25% calorie restriction; CR+EX, 12.5% CR + 12.5% increase in energy expenditure via aerobic exercise. CVD risk factors were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months.
Results. After 6 months, CR and CR+EX lost approximately 10% of body weight. CR significantly reduced triacylglycerol (-31 ± 15 mg/dL) and factor VIIc (-10.7 ± 2.3%). Similarly CR+EX reduced triacylglycerol (-22 ± 8 mg/dL) and additionally reduced LDL-C (-16.0 ± 5.1 mg/dL) and DBP (-4.0 ± 2.1 mmHg). In contrast, both triacylglycerol (24 ± 14 mg/dL) and factor VIIc (7.9 ± 2.3%) were increased in the control group. HDL-cholesterol was increased in all groups while hsCRP was lower in the Controls vs. CR+EX. Estimated 10-year CVD risk significantly declined from baseline by 29% in CR (P< 0.001) and 38% in the CR+EX (P<0.001) while remaining unchanged in the Control group.
Conclusions. Based on combined favorable changes in lipid and blood pressure, caloric restriction with or without exercise that induces weight loss favorably reduces risk for CVD even in already healthy non-obese individuals.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors and the risk of CHD increase with increased adiposity. Fat loss induced by negative energy balance improves all metabolic CHD risk factors.
To determine whether fat loss induced by long-term calorie restriction (CR) or increased energy expenditure induced by exercise (EX) has different effects on CHD risk factors in nonobese subjects, we conducted a 1-yr controlled trial involving 48 nonobese subjects who were randomly assigned to one of three groups: CR, 20% CR diet (n = 18); EX, 20% increase in energy expenditure through daily exercise with no increase in energy intake (n = 18); or HL, healthy lifestyle guidelines (n = 10). Subjects were 29 women and 17 men aged 57 ± 3 yr, with BMI 27.3 ± 2.0 kg/m2.
Assessments included total body fat by DEXA, lipoproteins, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein (CRP), and estimated 10-yr CHD risk score. Body fat decreased by 6.3 ± 3.8 kg in CR, 5.6 ± 4.4 kg in EX, and 0.4 ± 1.7 kg in HL, which corresponded to reductions of 24.9, 22.3, and 1.2% of baseline body fat mass, respectively.
The energy deficits [induced by either caloric restriction or exercise] were accompanied by reductions in most of the major CHD risk factors, including plasma LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, HOMA-IR index, and CRP concentrations that were similar in the two intervention groups.
Data from the present study provide evidence that [both calorie restriction and exercise-induced] negative energy balance result in substantial and similar improvements in the major risk factors for coronary heart disease in normal-weight and overweight middle-aged adults.
SOURCE: Am J Physiology