Wearable sensors are already impacting healthcare and medicine by enabling health monitoring outside of the clinic and prediction of health events. This paper reviews current and prospective wearable technologies and their progress toward clinical application.
We describe technologies underlying common, commercially available wearable sensors and early-stage devices and outline research, when available, to support the use of these devices in healthcare. We cover applications in the following health areas: metabolic, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal monitoring; sleep, neurology, movement disorders and mental health; maternal, prenatal and neonatal care; and pulmonary health and environmental exposures.
Finally, we discuss challenges associated with the adoption of wearable sensors in the current healthcare ecosystem and discuss areas for future research and development.
Longer human lives have led to a global burden of late-life disease. However, some older people experience little ill health, a trait that should be extended to the general population.
Interventions into lifestyle, including increased exercise and reduction in food intake and obesity, can help to maintain healthspan. Altered gut microbiota, removal of senescent cells, blood factors obtained from young individuals and drugs can all improve late-life health in animals.
Application to humans will require better biomarkers of disease risk and responses to interventions, closer alignment of work in animals and humans, and increased use of electronic health records, biobank resources and cohort studies.
We often hear in Chinese myths that there was an elixir of eternal life that would grant the people who drank it immortality. Of course it was brushed aside as a myth but what if I said that this could actually be a reality in the years to come.
The sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–dependent deacylases (SIRT1–7) are thought to be responsible, in large part, for the cardiometabolic benefits of lean diets and exercise, and when upregulated can delay key aspects of aging.
SIRT1, for example, protects against a decline in vascular endothelial function, metabolic syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, obesity, and cardiomyopathy, and SIRT3 is protective against dyslipidemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury.
With increasing age, however, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels and sirtuin activity steadily decrease, and the decline is further exacerbated by obesity and sedentary lifestyles.
Activation of sirtuins or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide repletion induces angiogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and other health benefits in a wide range of age-related cardiovascular and metabolic disease models. Human clinical trials testing agents that activate SIRT1 or boost nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels are in progress and show promise in their ability to improve the health of cardiovascular and metabolic disease patients.
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